- Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy
Philip Shapira is a Professor in the School of Public Policy at Georgia Institute of Technology and Professor of Management, Innovation and Policy with the Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester. His interests encompass science and technology policy, economic and regional development, innovation management and policy, industrial competitiveness, technology trajectories and assessment, innovation measurement, and policy evaluation. Prof. Shapira's current and recent research includes projects that examine nanotechnology research and innovation systems assessment, responsible research and innovation in synthetic biology, and next generation manufacturing and institutions for technology diffusion. Prof. Shapira is a director of the Georgia Tech Program in Science, Technology and Innovation Policy and the Georgia Manufacturing Survey. He is co-editor (with J. Edler, P. Cunningham, and A. Gök) of the Handbook of Innovation Policy Impact (Edward Elgar 2016) and (with R. Smits and S. Kuhlmann) of Innovation Policy: Theory and Practice. An International Handbook (Edward Elgar, 2010). Prof. Shapira is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts.
Philip Shapira is on Twitter @pshapira
Journal Article – August 2016© 2015 The Authors. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ASIS&T.Websites offer an unobtrusive data source for developing and analyzing information about various types of social science phenomena. In this paper, we provide a methodological resource for social scientists looking to expand their toolkit using unstructured web-based text, and in particular, with the Wayback Machine, to access historical website data. After providing a literature review of existing research that uses the Wayback Machine, we put forward a step-by-step description of how the analyst can design a research project using archived websites. We draw on the example of a project that analyzes indicators of innovation activities and strategies in 300 U.S. small- and medium-sized enterprises in green goods industries. We present six steps to access historical Wayback website data: (a) sampling, (b) organizing and defining the boundaries of the web crawl, (c) crawling, (d) website variable operationalization, (e) integration with other data sources, and (f) analysis. Although our examples draw on specific types of firms in green goods industries, the method can be generalized to other areas of research. In discussing the limitations and benefits of using the Wayback Machine, we note that both machine and human effort are essential to developing a high-quality data set from archived web information.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67. Issue 8. 1904 - 1915. ISSN 2330-1635. DOI 10.1002/asi.23503.
Journal Article – May 2016© 2016, The Author(s).In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia’s limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russian nanotechnology research: publication pathways and the gatekeeping role of the Russian Academy of Sciences; increasing geographical and institutional centralisation of nanotechnology research; limited institutional diffusion; and patterns associated with the internationalisation of Russian research. We discuss policy implications related to path dependence, nanotechnology research in Russia and to the broader reform of the Russian science system.Scientometrics. 107. Issue 2. 645 - 670. ISSN 0138-9130. DOI 10.1007/s11192-016-1916-3.
Journal Article – February 2016© 2015 The Authors.This paper uses a policy mix approach to examine the institutional and governance issues arising from the UK's support for innovation in low carbon manufacturing sectors. The paper draws on interviews with managers of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises as well as policy practitioners and industry experts. The analysis of these interviews highlights issues in the multi-scalar design and delivery of these policies, including gaps and tensions in the policy mix, as well as the importance, and relative neglect of, regional institutional entrepreneurship in driving change. We find that coherence and consistency in UK low-carbon innovation policy is lacking, which is creating uncertainty and hampering private sector investment. The loss of regional capacity and anchor institutions challenges local and national actors to leverage instruments and connections but with much depleted resources, lacking a clear mandate, and facing a fragmented intermediary and support landscape.Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 103. 264 - 272. ISSN 0040-1625. DOI 10.1016/j.techfore.2015.10.008.
Book – 2016
Jakob Edler, Paul Cunningham, Abdullah Gök, and Philip Shapira, eds., Handbook of Innovation Policy Impact, Edward Elgar, Northampton, MA, and Cheltenham, UK, 2016.
Journal Article – December 2015© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.In the emerging technology domain of nanotechnology, a significant portion of small and midsize enterprises contribute to the scientific literature by publishing their research and development results. However, while considerable attention has been paid to patenting by small and midsize technology firms, the underlying business motivations for such firms to publish scientific papers are not well understood. This paper investigates the scientific publishing patterns of smaller firms engaged in nanotechnology and the factors that underlie this phenomenon. Based on an analysis of 85 US small and midsize enterprises with a minimum of four nanotechnology patents or publications, we test three hypotheses about corporate publishing: reputational gains, absorptive capacity, and strategic spillovers. We find that the small and midsize firms in our sample are more likely to publish when their work is associated with public science and when it involves a greater technological focus, but having a university collaborator is not a significant factor. The results from this study of nanotechnology enterprises suggest that small and midsize technology firms selectively manage and disclose their research based on internal developmental and capacity drivers.Journal of Technology Transfer. 40. Issue 6. 1016 - 1033. ISSN 0892-9912. DOI 10.1007/s10961-014-9391-6.
Journal Article – September 2015© 2015 The Authors. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ASIS&T.There is increasing evidence that citations to Chinese research publications are rising sharply. A series of reasons have been highlighted in previous studies. This research explores another possibility - whether there is a "clubbing" effect in China's surge in research citations, in which a higher rate of internal citing takes place among influential Chinese researchers. Focusing on the most highly cited research articles in nanotechnology, we find that a larger proportion of Chinese nanotechnology research citations are localized within individual, institutional, and national networks within China. Both descriptive and statistical tests suggest that highly cited Chinese papers are more likely than similar U.S. papers to receive internal and localized citations. Tentative explanations and policy implications are discussed.Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66. Issue 9. 1923 - 1932. ISSN 2330-1635. DOI 10.1002/asi.23302.